Sexual selection on a coloured ornament in king penguins. Interpopulation variation in the social organization of female collared lizards, Crotaphytus collaris. Schools can be difficult environments for students, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, but they are often especially unwelcoming for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT youth.
A comparative-study of status signaling in sparrows genus Zonotrichia.
The relative role of male versus female mate choice in maintaining assortative pairing among discrete colour morphs. Mutual social selection applies whenever mutual mechanisms extend beyond sexual selection, for example when mates choose each other on the basis of ornamental traits linked to dominance in social competition.
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In addition, mutual ornaments may function in intrasexual competition for ecological resources, particularly in females.
In some instances, transgender students were excluded from schoolwide competitions as well. Students noted that some of the verbal harassment they encountered occurred in spaces that were unmonitored by teachers, administrators, and other staff, such as hallways, cafeterias, buses, and locker rooms.
Vergara P. In this section, we summarize the main sources pro same sex adoption arguments for gun in Montgomery selection on female ornamental traits, and discuss the extent to which they are likely to reflect social selection. As transgender and gender non-conforming students have become more visible, too, many states and school districts have ignored their needs and failed to ensure they enjoy the same academic and extracurricular benefits as their non-transgender peers.
Photo credits for figure 1 : A. The previous year, Willow had been assaulted by a group of football players in the locker room, making the requirement that she use the male locker room particularly difficult.
Yet the expansion of exemptions in health care disproportionately harms vulnerable communities, such as women—particularly women of color—and LGBTQ individuals. Similarly, patterns of variation in male eyestalks of diopsid flies are generally thought to be driven entirely by sexual selection [ ], even though provisioning experiments show that they also increase access to food [ ].
Some schools have allowed transgender students to use alternative facilities, including faculty bathrooms normally off-limits to students, as an alternative to giving them free access to facilities that correspond with their gender identity. Many LGBT youth have organized gay-straight alliances GSAs , which can serve as important resources for students and as supportive spaces to counteract bullying and institutional silence about issues of importance to them.
Studies have shown that LGBT youth experience higher incidences of depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidality than their heterosexual, cisgender peers. When Elijah mentioned suicide and was briefly hospitalized, his mother spoke to administrators to ensure that he would be treated as a boy when he started at a new school in the fall.