Laakso, A. To that end, we find the MePD has more neurons and astrocytes in males than in females, with MePD neurons also having larger somata in males than in females. This decision-making behavior results in monetary losses overall. To the extent that imaging and neuropsychological studies do indicate differing networks supporting language between the sexes, this would be consistent with claims of sex differences in cognitive strategy.
Astrocytes have the same number of branches on both sides of the MePD and are not different in males and females B. Memory ; 11 : —
Clinical and physiological effects of stereotaxic bilateral amygdalotomy for intractable aggression. Similarly, recent rodent work indicates that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis plays a sexually dimorphic role in emotional memory consolidation, such that inactivation of the region prevents memory enhancement in males, but not females Bangasser and Shors Neither the number of primary branches Fig.
Third, sex differences are most likely to be observed for brain regions that are unique, highly developed, or expanded in humans compared to our non-human relatives, and this likelihood will increase as phylogenetic distance from the last common ancestor increases. These findings suggest that the molecular and genetic pathways involved in the formation of spatial memories may differ between male and female mice.
We found that this participant performed more similarly to the other participants with bilateral hippocampal damage, rather than focal bilateral amygdala damaged participants Fig. The bulk of the evidence presented here has drawn from studies on the psychological or systems neuroscience level: behavior, pharmacology, and neuroimaging.
Some studies have attempted to resolve this issue by comparing performance with purely verbal measures. While sex differences in spatial span on the Corsi Block-Tapping Task have been previously reported Orsini et al. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry.
Wiltgen et al. For example, while the MePD in rats is both larger and contains more neurons overall in males than in females, this relationship breaks down when one considers which side of the rat brain is being examined. Zelinski, E.
Alexander, G. In addition, the rostrocaudal extent of the MePD was examined for density changes in astrocytes, overall glia or neurons by grouping sections into four bins. Hamann S, Mao H. Wang, J. Appetitive behavior: impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning.
In some cases, consideration of sex may significantly alter, even reverse, conclusions about brain function drawn from the study of one sex alone Cahill